Unseen and unreported, Israeli police attacked children and parents who wished to remember the Palestinian national tragedy that is the flipside of the birth of Israel, writes Jonathan Cook in Nazareth
It has been a week of adulation from world leaders, ostentatious displays of military prowess, and street parties. Heads of state have rubbed shoulders with celebrities to pay homage to the Jewish state on its 60th birthday, while a million Israelis reportedly headed off to the country's forests to enjoy a national pastime: the barbecue.
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Palestinian refugee Mahmud Obied, 112, from the Dheisheh refugee camp holds the key of his former house near a huge 10-metre long iron key displayed at a workshop in the Aida refugee camp in the West Bank city of Bethlehem.
But this year's Independence Day festivities hid as much as they revealed. The images of joy and celebration seen by the world failed to acknowledge the reality of a deeply divided Israel, shared by two peoples with conflicting memories and claims to the land.
Away from the cameras, a fifth of the Israeli population -- more than one million Palestinian citizens -- remembered the Nakba, the catastrophe of 1948 that befell the Palestinian people as the Jewish state was built on the ruins of their society.
As it has been doing for the past decade, Israel's Palestinian minority staged an alternative act of commemoration: a procession of families, many of them refugees from the 1948 war, to one of more than 400 Palestinian villages erased by Israel in a monumental act of state vandalism after the fighting. The villages were destroyed to prevent the refugees from ever returning.
But in a sign of how far Israel still is from coming to terms with the circumstances of its birth, Israeli police forcibly broke up this year's march. They clubbed unarmed demonstrators with batons and fired tear gas and stun grenades into crowds of families that included young children.
While attention focussed this week on the visit of the US president, George W Bush, ordinary Israelis marked Independence Day a week earlier -- on the anniversary of Israel's founding according to the Hebrew calendar.
The gulf between the two Israels was nowhere starker than in the neighbouring cities of Nazareth, the effective capital of Israel's Palestinian minority, and Upper Nazareth, a town of Jewish immigrants built on Nazareth's confiscated lands half a century ago as part of a "Judaisation" programme.
Upper Nazareth's celebrations began with a firework display followed the next day by street parties, with bunting and Israeli flags decking cars, private homes and public offices. In Nazareth, by contrast, the mood was sombre. The streets were empty and silent, the shops closed, and no flags were to be seen.
For Palestinians inside Israel, as for their kin around the world, Israel's Independence Day is a painful reminder of their personal and national tragedy in 1948, when 750,000 Palestinians were expelled and their lands claimed for a Jewish state.
Most of the refugees are living in refugee camps in neighbouring Arab states but a few remained inside Israel. Today one in four Palestinian citizens of Israel is either a refugee or descended from one. Not only have they been denied the right ever to return to their homes, like the other refugees, but also many live tantalisingly close to their former communities.
All of the destroyed villages have either been reinvented as exclusive Jewish communities or buried under the foliage of national forestation programmes overseen by the Jewish National Fund and paid for with charitable donations from European and American Jews.
During the 1948 war, the city of Nazareth, one of only a few dozen Palestinian communities spared, offered sanctuary to a large number of refugees fleeing advancing Israeli forces. One of its largest refugee neighbourhoods is Safafra, built on a ridge overlooking the original village of Saffuriya, the destination of this year's Nakba procession.
Several thousand Palestinians, waving flags and chanting Palestinian songs, marched across fields on the outskirts of Nazareth towards the forest planted on Saffuriya's farming lands. Many old people who could still remember fleeing their villages in 1948 attended, joined by young families to share in the communal act of remembrance. Several dozen sympathetic Israeli Jews marched alongside them.
There were early signs of the trouble to come. As the marchers headed towards Saffuriya's spring, sealed off by the authorities with a metal fence a few years ago to stop the villagers collecting water, they were greeted with a small counter- demonstration staged by right-wing Israeli Jews. They had taken over the fields on the other side of the main road at the entrance to what was once Saffuriya and is now a Jewish farming community called Zippori. They waved Israeli flags and sang nationalist Hebrew songs, as armed riot police lined the edge of the road that separated the two demonstrations.
Tareq Shehadeh, head of the Nazareth Culture and Tourism Association, whose parents were expelled from Saffuriya, said: "There were some 50 Jewish demonstrators who had been allowed to take over the planned destination of our march. Their rights automatically trumped ours, even though there were thousands of us there and only a handful of them."
The police had their backs to the Jewish demonstrators while they faced off with the Palestinian procession. "It was as if they were telling us: 'We are here only for the benefit of Jews, not for you,'" said Shehadeh. "It was a reminder, if we needed it, that this is a Jewish state and we are even less welcome than usual when we meet as Palestinians."
The marchers turned away and headed uphill into the woods, to a clearing where Palestinian refugees recounted their memories.
When the event ended in late afternoon, the marchers headed back to the main road and their cars. In the police version, Palestinian youths blocked the road and threw stones at passing cars, forcing the police to use force to restore order.
Dozens of marchers were injured, including women and children, and two Arab Knesset members were bloodied by police batons. Mounted police charged into the crowds, while stun grenades and tear gas were liberally fired into fields being crossed by families. Eight youths were arrested.
Shehadeh -- who was close to the police when the trouble began -- and many other marchers say they saw the Jewish right-wingers throwing stones at them from behind the police. They say a handful of Palestinian youngsters responded in kind. Others add that the police were provoked by a young woman waving a Palestinian flag.
"None of the police were interested in stopping the Jews throwing stones. And even if a few Palestinian youths were reacting, you chase after them and arrest them, you don't send police on mounted horseback charging into a crowd of families and fire tear gas and stun grenades at them. It was totally indiscriminate and reckless."
Clouds of gas enveloped the slowest families as they struggled with their children to take cover in the forest.
Therese Zbeidat, a Dutch national who was there with her Palestinian husband, Ali, and their two teenage daughters, Dina and Awda, called the experiences of her family and others at the hands of the police "horrifying".
"Until then it really was a family occasion. When the police fired the tear gas, there were a couple near us pushing a stroller down the stony track towards the road. A thick cloud of gas was coming towards us. I told the man to leave the stroller and run uphill as fast as he could with the baby.
"Later I found them with the baby retching, its eyes streaming and choking. It broke my heart. There were so many families with young children, and the police charge was just so unprovoked. It started from nothing."
The 17-year-old boyfriend of Therese Zbeidat's daughter, Awda, was among those arrested. "It was his first time at any kind of nationalist event," she said. "He was with his mother, and when we started running up the hill away from the police on horseback, she stumbled and fell. He went to help her and the next thing a group of about 10 police were firing tear gas canisters directly at him. Then they grabbed him by the keffiyah [Palestinian scarf] around his neck and pulled him away. All he was doing was helping his mother!"
Later, Therese and her daughters thought they had made it to safety only to find themselves in the midst of another charge from a different direction, this time by police on foot. Awda was knocked to the ground and kicked, while Dina was threatened by a policeman who, she says, told her: "I will break your head."
"I've been on several demonstrations before when the police have turned nasty," said Therese, "but this was unlike anything I've seen. Those young children, some barely toddlers, amidst all that chaos crying for their parents -- what a way to mark Independence Day!"
Jafar Farah, head of the political lobbying group Mossawa, who was there with his two young sons, found them a safe spot in the forest and rushed downhill to help ferry other children to safety. The next day he attended a court hearing at which the police demanded that the eight arrested men be detained for a further seven days. Three, including a local journalist who had been beaten and had his camera stolen by police, were freed after the judge watched video footage of the confrontation taken by marchers. Awda's boyfriend, Saher, was not among those immediately released.
Farah said of the Independence Day events: "For decades our community was banned from remembering publicly what happened to us as a people during the Nakba. Our teachers were sacked for mentioning it. We were not even supposed to know that we are Palestinians.
"And in addition, the police have regularly used violence against us to teach us our place. In October 2000, at the start of the Intifada, 13 of our unarmed young men were shot dead for demonstrating. No one has ever been held accountable.
"Despite all that we started to believe that Israel was finally mature enough to let us remember our own national tragedy. Families came to show their children the ruins of the villages so they had an idea of where they came from. The procession was becoming a large and prominent event. People felt safe attending.
"But we were wrong, it seems. It looked to me very much like this attack by the police was planned. I think the authorities were unhappy about the success of the processions, and wanted them stopped.
"They may yet win. What parent will bring their children to the march next year knowing that they will be attacked by armed police?"